14 May 2004 Using scanning electrochemical microscopy to probe chemistry at the solid-liquid interface in chemically amplified immersion lithography
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Abstract
Three modes of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) - voltammetry, pH, and conductivity - have been used to better understand the chemistry at, and diffusion through, the solid/liquid interface formed between a resist film and water in 193 nm immersion lithography. Emphasis has been placed on investigating the photoacid generator (PAG), triphenylsulfonium perfluorobutanesulfonate, and the corresponding photoacid. The reduction of triphenylsulfonium at a hemispherical Hg microelectrode was monitored using square wave voltammetry to detect trace amounts of the PAG leaching from the surface. pH measurements at a 100 μm diameter Sb microelectrode show the formation of acid in the water layer above a resist upon exposure with UV irradiation. Bipolar conductance measurements at a 100 μm Pt tip positioned 100 μm from the surface indicate that the conductivity of the solution during illumination is dependent upon the percentage of PAG in the film. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of water samples in contact with resist films has been used to quantify the amounts (< 10 ng/cm2) of PAG leaching from the film in the dark which occurs within the first 30 seconds of contact time. Washing the film removes approximately 80% of the total leachable PAG.
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Robert J. LeSuer, Robert J. LeSuer, Fu-Ren F. Fan, Fu-Ren F. Fan, Allen J. Bard, Allen J. Bard, J. Christopher Taylor, J. Christopher Taylor, Pavlos Tsiartas, Pavlos Tsiartas, Grant Willson, Grant Willson, Willard E. Conley, Willard E. Conley, Gene Feit, Gene Feit, Roderick R. Kunz, Roderick R. Kunz, } "Using scanning electrochemical microscopy to probe chemistry at the solid-liquid interface in chemically amplified immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 5376, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXI, (14 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.537527; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537527
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