14 May 2004 Via fill properties of organic BARCs in dual-damascene application
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Abstract
With the introduction of copper as the interconnect metal, the Dual Damascene (DD) process has been integrated into integrated circuit (IC) device fabrication. The DD process utilizes organic bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) not only to eliminate the thin film interference effects but also to act as via fill materials. However, three serious processing problems are encountered with organic BARCs. One is the formation of voids, which are trapped gas bubbles (evaporating solvent, byproduct of the curing reaction and air) inside the vias. Another problem is non-uniform BARC layer thickness in different via pitch areas. The third problem is the formation of fences during plasma etch. Fences are formed from materials that are removed by plasma and subsequently deposited on the sidewall surrounding the via openings during the etching process. Voids can cause variations in BARC top thickness, optical properties, via fill percentage, and plasma etch rate. This study focuses on the factors that influence the formation of voids and addresses the ways to eliminate them by optimizing the compositions of formulations and the processing conditions. Effects of molecular weight of the polymer, nature of the crosslinker, additives, and bake temperature were examined. The molecular weight of the polymer is one of the important factors that needs to be controlled carefully. Polymers with high molecular weights tend to trap voids inside the vias. Low molecular weight polymers have low Tg and low viscosity, which enables good thermal flow so that the BARC can fill vias easily without voids. Several kinds of crosslinkers were investigated in this study. When used with the same polymer system, formulations with different crosslinkers show varying results that affect planar fill, sidewall coverage, and, in some cases, voids. Additives also can change via fill behavior dramatically, and choosing the right additive will improve the via fill property. Processing conditions such as bake temperature also greatly affect via fill. Depending on the polymer thermal property and crosslinking reaction, varying the bake temperature can change the via fill behavior of the BARC. By understanding the nature of the polymer, the crosslinking reaction, and the processing conditions, we are able to design BARCs with better flow property to provide planar topography without voids inside the vias.
© (2004) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Runhui Huang, Runhui Huang, } "Via fill properties of organic BARCs in dual-damascene application", Proc. SPIE 5376, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXI, (14 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.535453; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.535453
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