28 May 2004 General scaling law of optical lithography optical theory
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The concept of system invariance is the principle of scaling law in optical lithography. Both the conservation of the intensity threshold of the aerial image and the invariant pupil filling of the diffracted light with the normalized numerical aperture (NA) have to be satisfactory in order to ensure the invariance for a system in a variety of optical settings. Two well-known scaling equations with k1 and k2 factors characterize the capability of the manufacturing process in microlithography. In theory, the validity of these two equations has to be based on the principle of invariance. Therefore, any optical parameters in exposure tool could be scaling validly and properly, once they obey the principle of invariance.
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Chun-Kuang Chen, Chun-Kuang Chen, Tsai-Sheng Gau, Tsai-Sheng Gau, Li-Jui Chen, Li-Jui Chen, Chi-Chuang Lee, Chi-Chuang Lee, Jaw-Jung Shin, Jaw-Jung Shin, Anthony Yen, Anthony Yen, Burn-Jeng Lin, Burn-Jeng Lin, } "General scaling law of optical lithography optical theory", Proc. SPIE 5377, Optical Microlithography XVII, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.536667; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.536667

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