28 May 2004 Immersion fluid refractive indices using prism minimum deviation techniques
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Abstract
Immersion fluids for 157 nm and 193 nm immersion lithography have been measured over the spectral range from 156 nm to 1700 nm in a nitrogen purged environment. The refractive index n and k of several candidate fluids have been measured using the prism minimum deviation technique implemented on a commercial Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE) system. For measurement the liquids were contained in a triangular prism cell made with fused silica windows. The refractive index of high-purity water at 21.5° C measured over the spectral range 185 nm to 500 nm. was checked against values measured on high accuracy prism minimum deviation equipment by NIST and agreement with NIST has been found to be good. The refractive index at a nominal temperature of 32°C for four fluorinated fluids in the range of n=1.308 to 1.325 at 157 nm are also reported. It was found to be extremely important to correct for temperature differences among different instruments using the thermo-optic coefficient of each liquid. The 157 nm results on fluorinated fluids are compared with measurements at NIST using a VUV Hilger-Chance Refractometer, which measured both the refractive index and the thermo-optic coefficient. In all cases results agree well.
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Roger H. French, Min K. Yang, Michael F. Lemon, Ron A. Synowicki, Greg K. Pribil, Gerald T. Cooney, Craig M. Herzinger, Steven E. Green, John H. Burnett, Simon G. Kaplan, "Immersion fluid refractive indices using prism minimum deviation techniques", Proc. SPIE 5377, Optical Microlithography XVII, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.537727; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537727
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