28 May 2004 Optical extensions towards the 45-nm node
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To realize gates for the next technology node, one approach is to combine high NA ArF lithography and resolution enhancement techniques with a CD shrink. We have made an experimental one-on-one comparison of different optical enhancement techniques to explore the pitch range of the different optical extension techniques. Using an ASML PAS 5500/1100 0.75 NA ArF scanner, lines have been printed at a range of pitches starting at 160 nm pitch (k1 = 0.31). Several mask types have been used, including traditional binary masks and attenuated phase shift-masks for single exposure patterning. For double exposure patterning, alternating phase-shift masks and double dipole binary masks have been selected. We have utilized different types of off-axis illumination including annular, quadrupole (QUASAR and cQuad), and dipole illumination. Sub-resolution assist features have been applied to improve process capability of semi-dense through isolated lines. Sigma settings have been selected to either enhance the printability of the densest pitch, or to provide good through-pitch pattern printability. At each illumination condition and mask type, we have identified the resolution limit, process capability, and forbidden pitches based on process windows and mask error factors (MEF) at different pitches. Finally, to improve the depth of focus, we compare our 0.75 NA ArF imaging data to these of a 0.75 NA ArF immersion scanner and extrapolate to a 0.85 NA ArF immersion system to establish the possible pitch range for the next technology node.
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Eric Hendrickx, Eric Hendrickx, Philippe Monnoyer, Philippe Monnoyer, Lieve Van Look, Lieve Van Look, Geert Vandenberghe, Geert Vandenberghe, } "Optical extensions towards the 45-nm node", Proc. SPIE 5377, Optical Microlithography XVII, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.537522; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537522

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