28 May 2004 Photo-induced changes in 157-nm optical coatings
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Abstract
The photo-induced degradation of 157-nm anti-reflective (AR) coatings, and the role of water vapor in the ambient, have been studied with in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using ellipsometric techniques, we find that MgF2 thin films develop a surface roughness layer under laser irradiation at an incident dose of ~0.1 MJ/cm2. These thin film changes occur well before any changes in 157-nm transmission are observed. The findings are confirmed by ex-situ post-irradiation AFM measurements. LaF3 does not exhibit this effect. Addition of ppm-levels of moisture suppresses surface roughness formation, suggesting that the surface roughness growth may be a precursor to the transmission degradation of full AR stacks that had been observed earlier.
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Vladimir Liberman, Vladimir Liberman, Theodore M. Bloomstein, Theodore M. Bloomstein, Mordechai Rothschild, Mordechai Rothschild, Stephen T. Palmacci, Stephen T. Palmacci, Jan H. C. Sedlacek, Jan H. C. Sedlacek, Andrew Grenville, Andrew Grenville, } "Photo-induced changes in 157-nm optical coatings", Proc. SPIE 5377, Optical Microlithography XVII, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.534190; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.534190
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