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28 May 2004 Simulation of the coupled thermal optical effects for liquid immersion micro-/nano-lithography
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Immersion lithography has been proposed as a method for improving optical microlithography resolution to 45 nm and below via the insertion of a high refractive index liquid between the final lens surface and the wafer. Because the liquid will act as a lens component during the imaging process, it must maintain a high, uniform optical quality. One potential source of optical degradation involves changes in the liquid’s index of refraction caused by changing temperatures during the exposure process. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models from previous studies have investigated the thermal and fluid effects of the exposure process on the liquid temperature associated with a single die exposure. Here, the global heating of the wafer from multiple die exposures has been included to better represent the “worst case” liquid heating that will occur as an entire wafer is processed. The temperature distributions predicted by these simulations were used as the basis for rigorous optical models to predict effects on imaging. This paper presents the results for the fluid flow, thermal distribution, and imaging simulations. Both aligned and opposing flow directions were investigated for a range of inlet pressures that are consistent with either passive systems or active systems using filling jets.
© (2004) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
So-Yeon Baek, Alexander C. Wei, Daniel C. Cole, Greg Nellis, Michael S. Yeung, Amr Y. Abdo, and Roxann L. Engelstad "Simulation of the coupled thermal optical effects for liquid immersion micro-/nano-lithography", Proc. SPIE 5377, Optical Microlithography XVII, (28 May 2004);


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