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21 July 2004 Micromechanical simulation of piezoelectric materials using probability functions
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Piezoelectric materials exhibit nonlinear behavior when subjected to large electric or mechanical loads. This strong nonlinear behavior is induced by localized polarization switching at the domain level. In this work, certain piezoelectric materials having tetragonal perovskite type microstructure characteristics are simulated using micromechanical approach in which linear constitutive and nonlinear switching models are done in each and every grain of the material. Uniaxial loading is applied in the simulation. The effect of different domain switchings (90° or 180° domain switching for tetragonal perovskite structure) due to energy differences, different probability functions, different statistical random generators and material parameters are analysed. The response of the bulk ceramics is predicted by averaging the response of individual grains that are considered to be statistically random in orientation. The observed strain and electric displacement hysteresis loops for the piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are compared with previous experimental works described in the literature.
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Wolfgang Seemann, Arunchalakasi Arockiarajan, and Buelent Delibas "Micromechanical simulation of piezoelectric materials using probability functions", Proc. SPIE 5387, Smart Structures and Materials 2004: Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics, (21 July 2004);

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