Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a relatively new, scanning electron microscope-based technique used to characterize microstructures and textures in crystalline metal and ceramic materials. Advances in SEM technology, especially the development of field emission SEMs, as well as in EBSD detector design have allowed characterization at the sub-10 nm level. This paper gives a basic introduction to the EBSD technique with applications on materials with microstructures on the micron and sub-micron scale. Automated EBSD mapping at these and other resolution levels is used to study texture, individual grain orientation, crystallography-based phase identification, grain size, grain shape, strain state, grain boundary character, area percentages of multiple phases in bulk samples, crystallography of facets and failure initiation sites, and other materials characteristics. Sample sectioning and polishing are often necessary for mapping microstructures in bulk samples, however as-grown structures such as thin films and interconnects are suitable for mapping as is, and “point & shoot” type analyses may be used on other unprepared samples in conjunction with SEM imaging for phase identification and basic crystallographic orientation studies. For micron-scale devices and components, EBSD-equipped dual beam FIBs are used to select cross-sectional planes of analysis with high precision.