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21 September 2004 Nucleation and crystalization studies: a vibrational-spectroscopy investigation of 2,4,6-TNT
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2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, commonly known as TNT, is an explosive used in military shells, bombs, landmines, grenades, demolition operations, and underwater blasting. It is produced in the United States only at military facilities. Accidental releases of TNT and residues in battle fields have contaminated groundwater, soil, and sand at numerous sites around the world. TNT exists in two physical forms at room temperature: droplets and crystals. The spectroscopic information conveyed depends on its physical form and the substrate on which it is deposited. Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool that can be used to characterize TNT in its diverse forms. Crystallization of TNT from different solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, and water) was carried out to subsequently measure the vibrational spectra. The important nitroaromatic compound exhibits a series of unique characteristic bands that allow its detection and spectroscopic characterization. The spectroscopic signatures of neat TNT samples were determined with Raman Microspectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Microscopy. The Raman spectra of neat TNT are dominated by strong bands at about 1365 and 2956 cm-1. The intensity and even the presence of these bands are found to be remarkably dependent on TNT form and source.
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Cesar A. Manrique-Bastidas, Jairo Castillo-Chara, Nairmen Mina, Miguel E. Castro, and Samuel P. Hernandez-Rivera "Nucleation and crystalization studies: a vibrational-spectroscopy investigation of 2,4,6-TNT", Proc. SPIE 5415, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets IX, (21 September 2004);

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