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21 September 2004 Probing signal design for seismic landmine detection
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This paper addresses the design of time-domain signals for use as seismic excitations in a system that images buried landmines. The goal of the design is the selection of a signal that provides sufficient contrast for the post-processed landmine image in the shortest possible measurement time. Although the goal is relatively straightforward and the problem appears similar to one of system identification for a linear time invariant (LTI) system, practical implementation of many commonly accepted approaches to the system-identification problem has proven difficult. The reason for this is that the system under consideration exhibits observable nonlinearity over the entire range of drive levels that are of interest. The problem is therefore constrained by the requirement that nonlinear effects be tolerable rather than imperceptible (i.e. that the nonlinearity be sufficiently weak that the system can be reasonably characterized as linear). Several candidate signal types that have been shown to offer good noise immunity for the LTI system identification problem were considered. These included circular chirps, binary-sequence-based (BSB) signals, and numerically optimized randomly seeded multisines. Based on purely experimental figures of merit, circular chirps with flat amplitude and linearly swept frequency offered the best performance among the signals that were tested.
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James S. Martin, Waymond R. Scott Jr., Gregg D. Larson, Peter H. Rogers, and George S. McCall II "Probing signal design for seismic landmine detection", Proc. SPIE 5415, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets IX, (21 September 2004);


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