21 September 2004 Spectroscopic characterization of nitroaromatic landmine signature explosives
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TNT and DNT are important explosives used as base charges of landmines and other explosive devices. They are often combined with RDX in specific explosive formulations. Their detection in vapor phase as well as in soil in contact with the explosives is important in landmine detection technology. The spectroscopic signatures of nitroaromatic compounds in neat forms: crystals, droplets, and recrystallized samples were determined by Raman Microspectroscopy (RS), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) and Fiber Optics Coupled - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FOC-FTIR) using a grazing angle (GA) probe. TNT exhibits a series of characteristic bands: vibrational signatures, which allow its detection in soil. The spectroscopic signature of neat TNT is dominated by strong bands about 1380 and 2970 cm-1. The intensity and position of these bands were found remarkably different in soil samples spiked with TNT. The 1380 cm-1 band is split into a number of bands in that region. The 2970 cm-1 band is reduced in intensity and new bands are observed about 2880 cm-1. The results are consistent with a different chemical environment of TNT in soil as compared to neat TNT. Interactions were found to be dependent on the physical source of the explosive. In the case of DNT-sand interactions, shifts in vibrational frequencies of the explosives as well as the substrates were found.
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Samuel P. Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P. Hernandez-Rivera, Cesar A. Manrique-Bastidas, Cesar A. Manrique-Bastidas, Alejandro Blanco, Alejandro Blanco, Oliva M. Primera, Oliva M. Primera, Leonardo C. Pacheco, Leonardo C. Pacheco, Jairo Castillo-Chara, Jairo Castillo-Chara, Miguel E. Castro, Miguel E. Castro, Nairmen Mina, Nairmen Mina, "Spectroscopic characterization of nitroaromatic landmine signature explosives", Proc. SPIE 5415, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets IX, (21 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.542895; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.542895

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