For the last three decades, space science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of the solar system including our home planet. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASAs Earth Science exploration has deployed about 18 highly complex satellites so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of our Nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to make use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies and decision makers can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risks and protect society. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.