Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques include visual inspection, eddy current scanning, ultrasonics, and fluorescent dye penetration. These techniques are limited to local evaluation, often miss small buried defects, and are useful only on polished surfaces. Advanced NDE techniques include laser ultrasonics, holographic interferometry, structural integrity monitoring, shearography, and thermography. A variation of shearography, employing reflective shearographic interferometry, has been developed. This new shearographic interferometer is discussed, together with models to optimize its performance and experiments demonstrating its use in NDE.