18 August 2004 Integration of micro-/nano-/quantum-scale photonic devices: scientific and technological considerations
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Abstract
Scientific and technological issues and considerations regarding the integration of miniaturized microphotonic devices, circuits and systems in micron, submicron, and quantum scale, are presented. First, we examine the issues regarding the miniaturization of photonic devices including the size effect, proximity effect, energy confinement effect, microcavity effect, optical and quantum interference effect, high field effect, nonlinear effect, noise effect, quantum optical effect, and chaotic effect. Secondly, we examine the issues regarding the interconnection including the optical alignment, minimizing the interconnection losses, and maintaining optical modes. Thirdly, we address the issues regarding the two-dimensional or three-dimensional integration either in a hybrid format or in a monolithic format between active devices and passive devices of varying functions. We find that the concept of optical printed circuit board (O-PCB) that we propose is highly attractive as a platform for micro/nano/quantum-scale photonic integration. We examine the technological issues to be addressed in the process of fabrication, characterization, and packaging for actual implementation of the miniaturization, interconnection and integration. Devices that we have used for our study include: mode conversion schemes, micro-ring and micro-racetrack resonator devices, multimode interference devices, lasers, vertical cavity surface emitting microlasers, and their arrays. Future prospects are also discussed.
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El-Hang Lee, El-Hang Lee, Seung-Gol Lee, Seung-Gol Lee, Beom Hoan O, Beom Hoan O, Se Geun Park, Se Geun Park, } "Integration of micro-/nano-/quantum-scale photonic devices: scientific and technological considerations", Proc. SPIE 5451, Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (18 August 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.532154; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.532154
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