18 August 2004 Photo-crosslinkable hybrid material with improved aging stability for integrated optics
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In the last decade, the processing of the waveguide structures on various substrates under mild conditions has been an appealing aim. The lithographic patterning of organic-inorganic hybrid materials processed by means of sol-gel technology allows the production of waveguides and other optical components. We describe the synthesis of a new, photo-patternable, organically modified material with an improved ageing stability. Synthesis step does not involve widely used zirconia precursors, but it retains the same possibility of altering the refractive index by tailoring of the material composition. Refractive index values varied from 1.4700 to 1.5100. Measured birefringence values meet the requirements of most integrated planar optic applications. The synthesized material is compatible with silicon, glass and plastic substrates. Material was analyzed using 29Si NMR techniques. The processed slab waveguides were characterized by using the prism coupling technique at various wavelengths. The attenuation in the waveguide was determined by the cut-back method, and it was found to be less than 0.5dB/cm at the wavelength of 830 nm. The morphology of the microstructures was measured by using the interferometer equipment. Slab waveguides rms values were in order of only 2 nm.
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Maja Kusevic, Maja Kusevic, Arto Maaninen, Arto Maaninen, Jussi Hiltunen, Jussi Hiltunen, Marianne Hiltunen, Marianne Hiltunen, Jarkko Tuominen, Jarkko Tuominen, Pentti Karioja, Pentti Karioja, } "Photo-crosslinkable hybrid material with improved aging stability for integrated optics", Proc. SPIE 5451, Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (18 August 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.545488; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.545488

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