8 September 2004 Embedded optical interconnect on printed wiring board
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Abstract
Integration of high-speed parallel optical interconnects into printed wiring boards (PWB) is studied. The aim is a hybrid optical-electrical board including both electrical wiring and embedded polymer waveguides. Robust optical coupling between the waveguide and the emitter/detector should be achieved by the use of automated pick-and-place assembly. Different coupling schemes were analyzed by combining non-sequential ray tracing with Monte-Carlo tolerance simulation of misalignments. A modular demonstrator was designed based on three different kind of optical coupling schemes: butt-coupling and couplings based on microlens arrays and on micro ball lenses. The optical front-ends were implemented with PIN and flip-chip-VCSEL arrays as well as 10-Gb/s/channel electronics onto LTCC-based (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) transmitter and receiver modules, which were surface mounted on high-speed PWBs. An electrical simulation model was developed for the design of a VCSEL-based transmitter circuit. Polymer waveguides were fabricated on separate FR-4 boards to allow characterization of alignment tolerances with different waveguides. Optical and adhesion properties of several potential waveguide materials were characterized. The simulations and experiments suggest that, with optimized optomechanical structures and with low loss waveguides, it is possible to achieve acceptable total path loss and yield with the accuracy of automated assembly.
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Mikko Karppinen, Mikko Karppinen, Jukka-Tapani Makinen, Jukka-Tapani Makinen, Kari Kataja, Kari Kataja, Antti Tanskanen, Antti Tanskanen, Teemu Alajoki, Teemu Alajoki, Pentti Karioja, Pentti Karioja, Marika Immonen, Marika Immonen, Jorma Kivilahti, Jorma Kivilahti, } "Embedded optical interconnect on printed wiring board", Proc. SPIE 5453, Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects, (8 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.545931; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.545931
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