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10 September 2004 Fluorescence metrology used for analytics of high-quality optical materials
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Optical, glass ceramics and crystals are used for various specialized applications in telecommunication, biomedical, optical, and micro lithography technology. In order to qualify and control the material quality during the research and production processes several specialized ultra trace analytisis methods have to be appliedcs Schott Glas is applied. One focus of our the activities is the determination of impurities ranging in the sub ppb-regime, because such kind of impurity level is required e.g. for pure materials used for microlithography for example. Common analytical techniques for these impurity levels areSuch impurities are determined using analytical methods like LA ICP-MS and or Neutron Activation Analysis for example. On the other hand direct and non-destructive optical analysistic becomes is attractive because it visualizes the requirement of the optical applications additionally. Typical eExamples are absorption and laser resistivity measurements of optical material with optical methods like precision spectral photometers and or in-situ transmission measurements by means ofusing lamps and or UV lasers. Analytical methods have the drawback that they are time consuming and rather expensive, whereas the sensitivity for the absorption method will not be sufficient to characterize the future needs (coefficient much below 10-3 cm-1). For a non-destructive qualification for the current and future quality requirements a Jobin Yvon FLUOROLOG 3.22 fluorescence spectrometery is employed to enable fast and precise qualification and analysis. The main advantage of this setup is the combination of highest sensitivity (more than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity than state of the art UV absorption spectroscopy), fast measurement and evaluation cycles (several minutes compared to several hours necessary for chemical analystics). An overview is given for spectral characteristics using specified standards, which are necessary to establish the analytical system. The elementary fluorescence and absorption of rare earth element impurities as well as crystal defects induced luminescence originated by impurities was investigated. Quantitative numbers are given for the relative quantum yield as well as for the excitation cross section for doped glass and calcium fluoride.
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Axel Engel, Rainer Haspel, and Volker Rupertus "Fluorescence metrology used for analytics of high-quality optical materials", Proc. SPIE 5457, Optical Metrology in Production Engineering, (10 September 2004);

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