25 May 2004 Applications of nonequilibrium Kubo formula to the detection of quantum noise
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Proceedings Volume 5469, Fluctuations and Noise in Materials; (2004) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.544597
Event: Second International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, 2004, Maspalomas, Gran Canaria Island, Spain
Abstract
The Kubo fluctuation-dissipation theorem relates the current fluctuations of a system in an equilibrium state with the linear AC-conductance. This theorem holds also out of equilibrium provided that the system is in a stationary state and that the linear conductance is replaced by the (dynamic) conductance with respect to the nonequilibrium state. We provide a simple proof for that statement and then apply it in two cases. We first show that in an excess noise measurement at zero temperature, in which the impedance matching is maintained while driving a mesoscopic sample out of equilibrium, it is the nonsymmetrized noise power spectrum which is measured, even if the bare measurement, i.e. without extracting the excess part of the noise, obtains the symmetrized noise. As a second application we derive a commutation relation for the two components of fermionic or bosonic currents which holds in every stationary state and which is a generalization of the one valid only for bosonic currents. As is usually the case, such a commutation relation can be used e.g. to derive Heisenberg uncertainty relationships among these current components.
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Uri Gavish, Yoseph Imry, Bernard Yurke, "Applications of nonequilibrium Kubo formula to the detection of quantum noise", Proc. SPIE 5469, Fluctuations and Noise in Materials, (25 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.544597; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.544597
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