In quantum information and quantum computing, the carrier of information is some quantum system and information is encoded in its state. The state, however, is not an observable in quantum mechanics, thus a fundamental problem arises: after processing the information it has to be read out or, in other words, the state of the system must be determined. When the possible target states are orthogonal, this is a relatively simple task, provided the set of possible target states is known. But when the possible target states are not orthogonal their discrimination is far from being trivial even if their set is known. Thus the problem of discriminating among non-orthogonal states is ubiquitous in quantum information and quantum computing, underlying all communication and computing schemes. It is the subject of this talk to review recent theoretical and experimental advances in this field.