20 August 2004 Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies
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To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.
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Dmitri I. Daniltchenko, Dmitri I. Daniltchenko, Albrecht Kastein, Albrecht Kastein, Frank Koenig, Frank Koenig, Markus Sachs, Markus Sachs, Dietmar Schnorr, Dietmar Schnorr, Salman Al-Shukri, Salman Al-Shukri, Stefan A. Loening, Stefan A. Loening, } "Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies", Proc. SPIE 5474, Saratov Fall Meeting 2003: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine V, (20 August 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.578348; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.578348

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