29 September 2004 Imaging by photon counting with 256x256 pixel matrix
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Abstract
Using 0.25μm standard CMOS we have developed 2-D semiconductor matrix detectors with sophisticated functionality integrated inside each pixel of a hybrid sensor module. One of these sensor modules is a matrix of 256x256 square 55μm pixels intended for X-ray imaging. This device is called 'Medipix2' and features a fast amplifier and two-level discrimination for signals between 1000 and 100000 equivalent electrons, with overall signal noise ~150 e- rms. Signal polarity and comparator thresholds are programmable. A maximum count rate of nearly 1 MHz per pixel can be achieved, which corresponds to an average flux of 3x10exp10 photons per cm2. The selected signals can be accumulated in each pixel in a 13-bit register. The serial readout takes 5-10 ms. A parallel readout of ~300 μs could also be used. Housekeeping functions such as local dark current compensation, test pulse generation, silencing of noisy pixels and threshold tuning in each pixel contribute to the homogeneous response over a large sensor area. The sensor material can be adapted to the energy of the X-rays. Best results have been obtained with high-resistivity silicon detectors, but also CdTe and GaAs detectors have been used. The lowest detectable X-ray energy was about 4 keV. Background measurements have been made, as well as measurements of the uniformity of imaging by photon counting. Very low photon count rates are feasible and noise-free at room temperature. The readout matrix can be used also with visible photons if an energy or charge intensifier structure is interposed such as a gaseous amplification layer or a microchannel plate or acceleration field in vacuum.
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Lukas Tlustos, Lukas Tlustos, Michael Campbell, Michael Campbell, Erik H. M. Heijne, Erik H. M. Heijne, Xavier Llopart, Xavier Llopart, } "Imaging by photon counting with 256x256 pixel matrix", Proc. SPIE 5501, High-Energy Detectors in Astronomy, (29 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.551518; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.551518
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