29 September 2004 Performance of the most recent avalanche photodiodes for future x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy
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We report on the performance of the most recent avalanche photodiodes produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, as low-energy X-rays and γ-rays detectors. APDs share good features of both photo diodes and PMTs, as they are very compact, produce an internal gain of 10-100, and have a high quantum efficiency close to 100% in the visible right. Until very recently, however, APDs were limited to very small surfaces, and were mainly used as a digital device for light communication. We have developed large area (up to 10x10 mm2) APDs which can be used in the physics experiments. The best energy resolution of 6.4% (FWHM) was obtained in direct detection of 5.9 keV X-rays. The FWHM results of 9.4% and 4.9% were obtained for 59.5 keV and 662 keV γ-rays respectively, as measured with the CsI(Tl) crystal. The minimum detectable energy for the scintillation light was as low as 1 keV at lightly cooled environment (-20°C). Note that our results are the best records ever achieved with APDs. Various applications of APDs are presented for future space research and nuclear medicine. In particular 2-dimensional APD arrays will be a promising device for a wide-band X-ray and γ-ray imaging detector.
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Jun Kataoka, Tomoko Ikagawa, Yoichi Yatsu, Yusuke Kuramoto, Takao Saito, Nobuyuki Kawai, Yuuri Serino, Junichi Kotoku, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Nobuyuki Kawabata, "Performance of the most recent avalanche photodiodes for future x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy", Proc. SPIE 5501, High-Energy Detectors in Astronomy, (29 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.549755; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.549755

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