2 August 2004 Chiral fiber Bragg gratings
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Abstract
We have produced chiral fiber Bragg gratings with double-helix symmetry and measured the polarization and wavelength selective transmission properties of these structures. These gratings interact only with circularly polarized light with the same handedness as the grating twist and freely transmit light of the orthogonal polarization. The optical characteristics of chiral fibers are compared to those of planar cholesteric structures. The resonant standing wave at the band edge or at a defect state within the band gap, as well as the evanescent wave within the band gap is comprised of two counterpropagating components of equal amplitude. The electric field vector of such a circularly polarized standing wave does not rotate in time; rather it is linearly polarized in any given plane. The standing wave may be described in terms of the sense of circular polarization of the two counterpropagating components. The wavelength dependence of the angle q between the linearly polarized electromagnetic field and the extraordinary axis, which is constant throughout a long structure, is obtained in a simple calculation. The results are in good agreement with scattering matrix calculations. Resonant chiral gratings are demonstrated for microwave radiation whereas chiral gratings with pitch exceeding the wavelength are demonstrated at optical wavelengths in single-mode glass fibers. The different functionalities of these fibers are discussed.
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Azriel Z. Genack, Victor I. Kopp, Victor M. Churikov, Jonathan Singer, Norman Chao, Daniel A. Neugroschl, "Chiral fiber Bragg gratings", Proc. SPIE 5508, Complex Mediums V: Light and Complexity, (2 August 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.560129; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.560129
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