29 September 2004 Requirements and designs of illuminators for microlithography
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Abstract
The beam shaping by illuminators of microlithographic optical systems is a key technological contributor to the advancement of mass production of integrated circuits. The following examines both the requirements and the design of these illumination systems. The importance of partial coherence, off-axis illumination, polarization, telecentricity and uniformity for the lithographic process are discussed. The design sections cover the systems from source to reticle, including the use of diffusers, axicons, kaleidoscopes and fly's eyes arrays.
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Paul Michaloski, Paul Michaloski, } "Requirements and designs of illuminators for microlithography", Proc. SPIE 5525, Laser Beam Shaping V, (29 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.563941; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.563941
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