18 October 2004 Fabrication and testing of Wolter type-I mirrors for soft x-ray microscopes
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Abstract
Development of a small Wolter type-I mirror that is mainly used as an objective for the X-ray microscope is described. Small Wolter mirrors for X-ray microscopes are fabricated by the vacuum replication method because of their long aspherical shape. Master mandrel is ground and polished by an ultra-precision NC lathe. Tungsten carbide was selected as a material because its thermal expansion coefficient is a little larger than the replica glass. It was ground by ELID (Electrolytic In-process Dressing) grinding technique that is appropriate for the efficient mirror surface grinding. After ultra-precision grinding, the figure error of master mandrel was better than 0.5μm except the boundary between the hyperboloid and the ellipsoid. Before vacuum replication, the mandrel was coated with Au (thickness 50nm) as the parting layer. Pyrex glass was empirically selected as mirror material. The master mandrel was inserted into the Pyrex glass tube and heated up to 675°C in the electric furnace. Although vacuum replication is a proper technique in terms of its high replication accuracy, the surface roughness characterized by the high spatial frequency of the mandrel was replicated less accurate than the figure error characterized by the low spatial frequency. This indicates that the surface roughness and the figure error depend on the glass surface and the figure error of the master mandrel, respectively. A fabricated mirror was evaluated by the imaging performance with a laser plasma X-ray source (λ=3.2nm).
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Masato Hoshino, Sadao Aoki, Norio Watanabe, Shinichiro Hirai, "Fabrication and testing of Wolter type-I mirrors for soft x-ray microscopes", Proc. SPIE 5533, Advances in Mirror Technology for X-Ray, EUV Lithography, Laser, and Other Applications II, (18 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.557617; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.557617
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