26 October 2004 Sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials examined by x-ray microtomography
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Sulfate ions present in soil, groundwater, seawater, decaying organic matter, acid rain, and industrial effluent adversely affect the long-term durability of portland cement concrete, but lack of complete understanding of the nature and consequences of sulfate attack hamper our ability to accurately predict performance of concrete in sulfate-rich environments. One impediment to improved understanding of sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials has been the lack of appropriate non-destructive characterization techniques. Laboratory x-ray microtomography affords an opportunity to study in situ the evolution of physical manifestations of damage due to sulfate exposure. The influence of materials selection and mixture parameters -- including water-to-cement ratio, cement type, and presence or absence of aggregate, as well as the influence of sulfate exposure conditions, including sulfate and cation type (i.e., Na2SO4 and MgSO4) and concentration -- have been examined by microtomography to determine their influence on the rate and character of the sulfate-induced deterioration.
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Nikhila N. Naik, Kimberly E. Kurtis, Angus P. Wilkinson, Andrew C. Jupe, Stuart R. Stock, "Sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials examined by x-ray microtomography", Proc. SPIE 5535, Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV, (26 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.560429; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.560429

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