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14 October 2004 Determining ruthenium's optical constants in the spectral range 11-14 nm
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Ruthenium is one material that has been suggested for use in preventing the oxidation of Mo/Si mirrors used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The optical constants of Ru have not been extensively studied in the EUV. We report the complex index of refraction, 1 - δ + iβ, of sputtered Ru thin films from 11-14 nm as measured via reflectance and transmission measurements at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory. Constants were extracted from reflectance data using the reflectance vs. incidence angle method and from the transmission data by Lambert’s law. We compare the measured indices to previously measured values. Our measured values for delta are between 14-18% less than those calculated from the atomic scattering factors (ASF) available from the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO). Our measured values of beta are between 5-20% greater than the ASF values.
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Luke J. Bissell, David D. Allred, R. Steven Turley, William R. Evans, and Jed E. Johnson "Determining ruthenium's optical constants in the spectral range 11-14 nm", Proc. SPIE 5538, Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, (14 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.560900;

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