4 November 2004 1.5-μm optical up-conversion: wafer fusion and related issues
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Abstract
Imaging devices working in the near infrared (NIR), especially in the so-called eye-safe range, i.e., around 1.5 mm, have become increasingly important in many military and commercial applications; these include night vision, covert surveillance, range finding and semiconductor wafer inspection. We proposed a new approach in which a wafer-fused optical up-converter, combined with a commercially available charged coupled device (CCD), functions as an infrared camera. The optical up-converter converts incoming infrared light into shorter wavelength radiation that can be efficiently detected by the silicon CCD (cutoff wavelength about 1 mm). An optical up-converter with high efficiency at room-temperature is critical for low cost and large-area infrared imaging applications. A prototype 1.5 mm optical up-converter based on wafer fusion technology has been successfully fabricated. The device consists of an InGaAs/InP pin photodetector and a GaAs/AlGaAs light emitting diode. Experimental results show that the end-to-end up-conversion efficiency is 0.0177 W/W at room-temperature, corresponding to an internal quantum up-conversion efficiency of 76%. In this paper, the design, fabrications and characterization of the optical up-conversion devices is presented. Issues related to device optimization, such as improving internal and external up-conversion efficiency, are addressed. Preliminary results demonstrate the room-temperature up-conversion imaging operation of a pixelated wafer-fused device.
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Dayan Ban, Hui Luo, Hui-Chun Liu, Anthony J. SpringThorpe, Zbigniew R. Wasilewski, Andrew Bezinger, Alexei Bogdanov, Margaret Buchanan, "1.5-μm optical up-conversion: wafer fusion and related issues", Proc. SPIE 5543, Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing XII, (4 November 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.561087; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.561087
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