15 September 2004 Near-real-time cloud properties and aircraft icing indices from GEO and LEO satellites
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Imagers on many of the current and future operational meteorological satellites in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and lower Earth orbit (LEO) have enough spectral channels to derive cloud microphysical properties useful for a variety of applications. The products include cloud amount, phase, optical depth, temperature, height and pressure, thickness, effective particle size, and ice or liquid water path, shortwave albedo, and outgoing longwave radiation for each imager pixel. Because aircraft icing depends on cloud temperature, droplet size, and liquid water content as well as aircraft variables, it is possible to estimate the potential icing conditions from the cloud phase, temperature, effective droplet size, and liquid water path. A prototype icing index is currently being derived over the contiguous USA in near-real time from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-10 and 12) data on a half-hourly basis and from NOAA-16 Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) data when available. Because the threshold-based algorithm is sensitive to small errors and differences in satellite imager and icing is complex process, a new probability based icing diagnosis technique is developed from a limited set of pilot reports. The algorithm produces reasonable patterns of icing probability and intensities when compared with independent model and pilot report data. Methods are discussed for improving the technique for incorporation into operational icing products.
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Patrick Minnis, Patrick Minnis, William L. Smith, William L. Smith, Louis Nguyen, Louis Nguyen, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Patrick W. Heck, Patrick W. Heck, Rabindra Palikonda, Rabindra Palikonda, J. Kirk Ayers, J. Kirk Ayers, Cory Wolff, Cory Wolff, John J. Murray, John J. Murray, } "Near-real-time cloud properties and aircraft icing indices from GEO and LEO satellites", Proc. SPIE 5549, Weather and Environmental Satellites, (15 September 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.560488; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.560488

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