18 October 2004 Prediction and modeling of line-of-sight bending near ground level for long atmospheric paths
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Line-of-sight bending, called "beam bending", is an effect caused by strong atmospheric turbulence, where during daytime targets are seen lower and during nighttime higher than their real locations. This effect takes place in conditions of very low or absence of wind speed and relatively high turbulence, which characterize non-uniform atmospheres. During past three years high-resolution experiments in different desert and low vegetation areas of the Middle East (Israel) were performed. A model for predicting line-of-sight bending based on effects of turbulence and atmospheric conditions, described by pressure, temperature, relative humidity, etc., was developed and investigated. This paper describes investigations made to parameterize this model based on high-percentage prediction of results for different areas, day/night time, and heights above the ground surface.
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Sergey Bendersky, Norman S. Kopeika, Nathan Sh. Blaunstein, "Prediction and modeling of line-of-sight bending near ground level for long atmospheric paths", Proc. SPIE 5552, Target-in-the-Loop: Atmospheric Tracking, Imaging, and Compensation, (18 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.559020; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.559020

Atmospheric modeling

Refractive index

Data modeling

Atmospheric propagation


Atmospheric optics

Atmospheric turbulence

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