We consider communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of (A Hermitian) times A for some matrix A . We show that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that A is a "hub" matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. We describe an application of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems.
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H. T. Kung, H. T. Kung, Bruce W. Suter, Bruce W. Suter, } "Dominant covering", Proc. SPIE 5559, Advanced Signal Processing Algorithms, Architectures, and Implementations XIV, (26 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.564252; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.564252

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