18 October 2004 Phase signature-based image authentication watermark robust to compression and coding
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We present the further development of a watermarking technique that embeds an authentication signal in an image. In this paper, we concentrate on the JPEG 2000 image format. The detection/extraction of this signal can then be used to decide whether the image has gone through any intentional malicious tampering. Therefore, the watermark needs to be fragile to such tampering attacks. On the other hand, we need to make sure that the authentication is robust to change resulting from the watermarking process itself, or from necessary changes such as image compression. We address the robustness against watermarking process issue in two ways. First, we decompose the image into phase and magnitude values. A signature is then generated from the phase values. In particular, binary phase-only filters and their variants will are utilized for this. This signature is subsequently hidden into the magnitude part by a bit-plane embedding technique. The disjoint operations of signature generation and signature embedding minimize the embedding artifacts of the authentication signal. Secondly, we use wavelet decomposition, whereby, the signature can be generated from one subband, and then it can be embedded in other subband(s), or the same subband.
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Farid Ahmed, Ira S. Moskowitz, "Phase signature-based image authentication watermark robust to compression and coding", Proc. SPIE 5561, Mathematics of Data/Image Coding, Compression, and Encryption VII, with Applications, (18 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.557192; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.557192

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