20 December 2004 Fabrication and optimization of one-to-two and two-to-two optical directional couplers in glass using a femtosecond laser
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Abstract
1x2 and 2x2 optical waveguide directional couplers were fabricated in a silica glass sample by a femtosecond laser and characterized at the wavelength of 1.5 μm. The coupling coefficient was determined by systematically writing series of 1x2 directional couplers. After the process and design optimization, the two types of waveguide directional couplers successfully achieved the coupling ratio of about 3.0 dB with the average IL and PDL 6.55 ± 0.25 dB and 0.28 ± 0.12 dB respectively. The multi-scan writing technique with inter-scan shifts was used to reshape the magnitude and profile of the refractive index change so that excess loss of S bends and the PDL for such couplers were substantially reduced.
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Jiaren Liu, Zhiyi Zhang, Shoude Chang, Costel Flueraru, Chander Prakash Grover, "Fabrication and optimization of one-to-two and two-to-two optical directional couplers in glass using a femtosecond laser", Proc. SPIE 5577, Photonics North 2004: Optical Components and Devices, (20 December 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.567083; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.567083
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