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25 October 2004 Raman amplifiers for telecommunications: physical principles to systems
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This paper describes the design and implementation of wide-band Raman amplifiers for fiber-optic telecommunications systems. All-Raman amplifiers permit 100nm wide systems over spans of over 1500km due to the low noise figure and reduced nonlinear system penalties. First, the enabling technologies for realizing 50-100nm transmission systems are reviewed. Then, the focus is on the key building block for wideband systems, namely the all-Raman optical amplifier. The advantages and challenges of all-Raman wideband amplifiers (WBA) are first reviewed. Then, Section 3 describes the physical principles and engineering design rules for construction of all-Raman WBAs that satisfy gain and noise figure performance requirements of typical long-haul and ultra-long-haul fiber-optic transmission systems. Exemplary wideband system experiments are described in Section 4, and then the paper is summarize and concluded in Section 5.
© (2004) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mohammed N. Islam "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications: physical principles to systems", Proc. SPIE 5595, Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications IV, (25 October 2004);

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