The research on the Novelty Detection System (NDS) (called as VENUS) at the authors' universities has generated exciting results. For example, we can detect an abnormal behavior (such as cars thefts from the parking lot) from a series of video frames based on the cognitively motivated theory of habituation. In this paper, we would like to describe the implementation strategies of lower layer protocols for using large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to NDS with Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Wireless data collection framework, consisting of small and low-power sensor nodes, provides an alternative mechanism to observe the physical world, by using various types of sensing capabilities that include images (and even videos using Panoptos), sound and basic physical measurements such as temperature. We do not want to lose any 'data query command' packets (in the downstream direction: sink-to-sensors) or have any bit-errors in them since they are so important to the whole sensor network. In the upstream direction (sensors-to-sink), we may tolerate the loss of some sensing data packets. But the 'interested' sensing flow should be assigned a higher priority in terms of multi-hop path choice, network bandwidth allocation, and sensing data packet generation frequency (we hope to generate more sensing data packet for that novel event in the specified network area).
The focus of this paper is to investigate MAC-level Quality of Service (QoS) issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for Novelty Detection applications. Although QoS has been widely studied in other types of networks including wired Internet, general ad hoc networks and mobile cellular networks, we argue that QoS in WSN has its own characteristics. In wired Internet, the main QoS parameters include delay, jitter and bandwidth. In mobile cellular networks, two most common QoS metrics are: handoff call dropping probability and new call blocking probability. Since the main task of WSN is to detect and report events, the most important QoS parameters should include sensing data packet transmission reliability, lifetime extension degree from sensor sleeping control, event detection latency, congestion reduction level through removal of redundant sensing data. In this paper, we will focus on the following bi-directional QoS topics: (1) Downstream (sink-to-sensor) QoS: Reliable data query command forwarding to particular sensor(s). In other words, we do not want to lose the query command packets; (2) Upstream (sensor-to-sink) QoS: transmission of sensed data with priority control. The more interested data that can help in novelty detection should be transmitted on an optimal path with higher reliability. We propose the use of Differentiated Data Collection. Due to the large-scale nature and resource constraints of typical wireless sensor networks, such as limited energy, small memory (typically RAM < 4K bytes) and short communication range, the above problems become even more challenging. Besides QoS support issue, we will also describe our low-energy Sensing Data Transmission network Architecture. Our research results show the scalability and energy-efficiency of our proposed WSN QoS schemes.