The rapid development of cataract and refractive surgery requires new methods to assess the optical quality of the eye. The optimized optical design of custom treatments to improve the optical performance of individual eyes requires, at least, to have the technology to (1) measure the geometry (anatomy) of the optics of the eye; (2) measure the optical performance (refractive state, aberrations, etc); (3) Build a custom optical and anatomical model of the individual eye to treat; (4) Optimal design of custom treatments. In this communication we will present the work carried out by our group to develop methods for measuring and modeling the optical performance of the eye. In particular, we will focus, first, on the Laser Ray Tracing method that we have developed to measure the optical aberrations of the eye, as a physical in vivo implementation of the classical numerical ray tracing used by optical designers; and second, on the development of custom optical models of the eye to perform that numerical ray tracing which predicts with a high fidelity experimental measurements. The methods developed have been applied to design both custom surgery and optical aids to improve optical performance.