A novel 16-channel comb filter based on superstructure fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) is proposed for the first time. It is characterized by single-grating structure, equal reflectivity peaks, narrow channel bandwidth, flat-top, high bandwidth utilization ratio, standard 50 GHz channel-spacing, and realizing dispersion compensation and wavelength filtration simultaneously. Based on ameliorated layer-peeling algorithm, that is adopting channel-by-channel windowing method rather than all-channel integral windowing method, this novel SFBG is synthesized successfully. According to the grating structure of the synthesized SFBG, reflectivity spectrum, group delay and group delay ripper are analyzed based on the method of transfer matrix. The results show this SFBG does an almost perfect job of reproducing the desired spectrum.