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8 February 2005 The evolution to transparent optical networking
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Optical data transmission has undergone a tremendous evolution. Starting with unrepeated point-to-point transmission in the 80s the inventions of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) have let to an explosion of system capacity as well as of system reach. After the steep downturn of recent years network operators have now regained the strength to upgrade their networks and to implement new services. This paper will review current and upcoming technologies in the long haul (LH) and ultra long haul (ULH) data transmission. It will further discuss the future evolution of transparent optical networks towards dynamically routed meshed optical networks with respect to operator’s technical operational and economical requirements. Upgradeability turns out as a key issue as it on the one hand side facilitates low front investments for network providers and on the other hand side enables organic and flexible network growth.
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Marc Wrage, Andreas Kirstaedter, and Harald Rohde "The evolution to transparent optical networking", Proc. SPIE 5626, Network Architectures, Management, and Applications II, (8 February 2005);

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