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13 January 2005 Practical applications of femtosecond laser micromachining and fabrication
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Femtosecond laser is suitable to machine a variety of materials, such as metals, semiconductors, polymers, oxide ceramics, silica aerogels, optical glasses, crystals, deep sea sands and even explosives because of its high peak power density and low heat affected zone. In this paper, the femtosecond laser micromachining of different materials and for different processing is presented, including structuring in optical glasses, and the cutting of metals and the deep-sea (South China Sea) sands. The laser used in the experiment is a commercial Ti:Sapphire laser with the pulse width of 50 and 100 fs, wavelength of 800 nm, maximum pulse energy up to 2 mJ and the repetition rate of 1 kHz. The evolution of material eruption as a function of the number of laser pulses and intensity is studied. The dependence of ablation rate with laser intensity and the number of the pulses is characterized by measuring the maximum laser penetration depth in different materials.
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Xiao Yuan, Changhong Zhu, Xiao Zhu, Guangzhi Zhu, Li Liu, and Peixiang Lu "Practical applications of femtosecond laser micromachining and fabrication", Proc. SPIE 5629, Lasers in Material Processing and Manufacturing II, (13 January 2005);

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