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30 December 2004 Fabrication of grating waveguides based on nano-imprint lithography and silicon-mould replication techniques
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Grating waveguides were fabricated based on Nano-imprint lithography (NIL) and silicon mould replication techniques in this paper. Using a silicon mould repeatedly, low-cost grating waveguides can be fabricated in batches. The proposed grating waveguide is soft enough to be an optical sensing element for catheter, smart skin sensing unit of micro-robots, and etc. Further, these grating waveguides were coupled with optical fibers for its convenient applications. There are two main parts in this paper, the first is to fabricate a suitable silicon mould for replication of grating waveguides, and the second is to reprint grating waveguides by using the fabricated silicon mould. Basing on NIL technology proposed in 1995 by Professor Stephen Y Chou, silicon moulds of grating waveguides with pitch 0.75μm were fabricated on (100) silicon wafer. There are several methods to carry out the replication process, such as Hot embossing, Injection moulding, UV-replication and Casting moulding method. In this work, UV-replication and Casting moulding method was selected to fabricate the grating waveguide structures for its easy control and high fidelity. There are two associated challenging issues in the replicating process; one is to prevent the replicated materials from sticking to the mould for easily peeling off the replicated structure, the other is to find matching materials for the waveguide core and cladding to guarantee the optical characteristics of the grating waveguide. Grating waveguides with core size 4μm×20μm were fabricated successfully in this paper that demonstrated the novel idea of this paper.
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Yueming Liu, Masayoshi Esashi, and Weijian Tian "Fabrication of grating waveguides based on nano-imprint lithography and silicon-mould replication techniques", Proc. SPIE 5641, MEMS/MOEMS Technologies and Applications II, (30 December 2004);

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