We have developed optically-addressed and electrically-addressed liquid crystal spatial phase-only light modulators without pixelized structures. We obtained a large depth of phase-only modulation based on the electro-optical characteristics of a parallel-aligned nematic liquid crystal. We also confirmed that the satisfactory phase modulation capability and high diffraction efficiency of these spatial light modulators were useful for practical applications such as optical correlation, holographic measurement, optical waveform shaping, and optical wavefront compensation.
"A liquid crystal spatial light phase modulator and its applications", Proc. SPIE 5642, Information Optics and Photonics Technology, (11 January 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.577889; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.577889