An approximate relationship between strain and applied potential was derived for composite actuators consisting of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and conductive polymers (CPs). During deriving the relationships, an electrochemical ionic approach is utilized to formulate the electromechanical actuation of the composite film actuator. This relationship can give us a direct understanding of the actuation of a nanoactuator. The results show that the well-aligned SWNTs composite actuator can give good actuation responses and high actuating forces available. The actuation is found to be affected by both the SWNTs and CPs components and the actuation of SWNTs component has two kinds of influences on that of the CPs component: reinforcement at the positive voltage and abatement at the negative voltage. Optimizations of SWNTs-CPs composite actuator may be achieved by using well-aligned method as well as choosing suitable electrolyte and input voltage range.
"Development of carbon nanotubes/EAP actuators by multiscale numerical analysis", Proc. SPIE 5648, Smart Materials III, (16 February 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.582269; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.582269