23 February 2005 Optimization of single keV ion implantation for the construction of single P-donor devices
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Abstract
We report recent progress in single keV ion implantation and online detection for the controlled implantation of single donors in silicon. When integrated with silicon nanofabrication technology this forms the “top down” strategy for the construction of prototype solid state quantum computer devices based on phosphorus donors in silicon. We have developed a method of single ion implantation and online registration that employs detector electrodes adjacent to the area into which the donors are to be implanted. The implantation sites are positioned with nanometer accuracy using an electron beam lithography patterned PMMA mask. Control of the implantation depth of 20 nm is achieved by tuning the phosphorus ion energy to 14 keV. The counting of single ion implantation in each site is achieved by the detection of e-/h+ pairs produced by the implanted phosphorus ion in the substrate. The system is calibrated by use of Mn K-line x-rays (5.9 and 6.4 keV) and we find the ionization energy of the 14 keV phosphorus ions in silicon to be about 3.5-4.0 keV for implants through a 5 nm SiO2 surface layer. This paper describes the development of an improved PIN detector structure that provides more reliable performance of the earlier MOS structure. With the new structure, the energy noise threshold has been minimized to 1 keV or less. Unambiguous detection/counting of single keV ion implantation events were achieved with a confidence level greater than 98% with a reliable and reproducible fabrication process.
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Changyi Yang, Changyi Yang, David N. Jamieson, David N. Jamieson, Toby Hopf, Toby Hopf, Soren E. Andresen, Soren E. Andresen, Sean M. Hearne, Sean M. Hearne, Fay E. Hudson, Fay E. Hudson, Christopher I. Pakes, Christopher I. Pakes, Mladen Mitic, Mladen Mitic, Eric Gauja, Eric Gauja, Grigori Tamanyan, Grigori Tamanyan, Andrew S. Dzurak, Andrew S. Dzurak, Steven Prawer, Steven Prawer, Robert G. Clark, Robert G. Clark, } "Optimization of single keV ion implantation for the construction of single P-donor devices", Proc. SPIE 5650, Micro- and Nanotechnology: Materials, Processes, Packaging, and Systems II, (23 February 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.582208; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.582208
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