12 January 2005 Nonlinear frequency up-conversion for mid-infrared single-photon detection
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Abstract
Remote sensing using mid-infrared wavelength has many applications in pollution surveillance and atmosphere studies. However, high gain, low noise detectors or single photon counters are not available in the mid-infrared wavelength range. One approach to obtain single-photon detection in mid-infrared wavelength is to convert the mid-infrared radiations into visible/near-infrared wavelengths where high efficiency and low dark current detectors are easily available. In this paper, the up-conversion of mid-infrared radiations based on the quasi-phase matching condition of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is investigated. The bandwidth and efficiency are the two essential parameters for the up-conversion process. The optimal pump wavelength λlasero and PPLN period Λ can be determined from conservations of energy and momentum. Once the λlasero and Λ are defined, the spectral bandwidth corresponding to the full width at half maximum of frequency up-conversion can be calculated. The spectral bandwidth of mid-infrared radiations can exceed 130 nm for a 25 mm PPLN crystal when the pump laser operates in the optimum wavelength. It is wide enough to cover both the on and off wavelengths of the species of interest in a Differential Absorption Lidar. The maximum up-conversion bandwidth usually corresponds to the longest PPLN period allowed by the quasi-phase matching condition. The conversion efficiency increases with the pump laser intensity. Both the external cavity pumping approach with cavity locking technique and the intra-cavity pumping approach can greatly increase the up-conversion efficiency.
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Yingxin Bai, Yingxin Bai, Jirong Yu, Jirong Yu, Norman P. Barnes, Norman P. Barnes, Songsheng Chen, Songsheng Chen, Mulugeta Petros, Mulugeta Petros, Hyung R. Lee, Hyung R. Lee, } "Nonlinear frequency up-conversion for mid-infrared single-photon detection", Proc. SPIE 5653, Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring V, (12 January 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.579287; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.579287
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