21 March 2005 Additive non-Gaussian noise attacks on the scalar Costa scheme (SCS)
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The additive attack public mutual information game is explicitly solved for one of the simplest quantization based watermarking schemes, the scalar Costa scheme (SCS). It is a zero-sum game played between the embedder and the attacker, and the payoff function is the mutual information. The solution of the game, a subgame perfect nash equilibrium, is found by backward induction. Therefore, the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm is employed for numerically optimizing the mutual information over noise distributions. Although the worst case distribution is in general strongly non-Gaussian, the capacity degradation compared to a suboptimal Gaussian noise attack is quite small. The loss, if the embedder optimizes SCS for a Gaussian attack but the worst case attack is employed, is negligible.
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Roman Tzschoppe, Roman Tzschoppe, Robert Bauml, Robert Bauml, Robert Fischer, Robert Fischer, Johannes Huber, Johannes Huber, Andre Kaup, Andre Kaup, "Additive non-Gaussian noise attacks on the scalar Costa scheme (SCS)", Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.587492; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.587492

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