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21 March 2005 Applying interest operators in semi-fragile video watermarking
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In this article we present a semi-fragile watermarking scheme for authenticating intra-coded frames in compressed digital videos. The scheme provides the detection of content-changing manipulations while being moderately robust against content-preserving manipulations. More generally, we mean by content-preserving manipulations those, which are applied in post-production processes, such as compression. Content-changing manipulations remove or insert objects into frames or sequences of frames. We focus in this work on a semi-fragile watermarking method based on invariant features referred to as points of interests. The features are extracted using the Moravec-Operator. The interest point operator of Moravec is totally un-supervised and does not require any a priori knowledge in the class of objects being protected in a given frame. Out of the interest points we generate a binary mask, which will be embedded robustly as watermark into the video. In the verification process we compare the detected watermark with the points of interest from the video, which has to be verified. We present test results evaluating the robustness against content-preserving manipulations and the fragility regarding content-changing manipulations. Beside the discussion of the results we propose a procedure to provide security of the scheme against forgery attacks.
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Stefan Thiemert, Hichem Sahbi, and Martin Steinebach "Applying interest operators in semi-fragile video watermarking", Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005);

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