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21 March 2005 Robust digital watermark solution for intercoded frames of MPEG video data
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Most of the MPEG watermarking schemes are intracoded block based solutions. In a standard encoded MPEG video every 12th frame is an I-frame, consisting of intracoded blocks. The other frames will not be marked. I-frames have nearly the same structure as JPEG images and JPEG based watermarking solution are applicable for I-frames. Different attacks like frame rate changing can change the frame type of the marked I-frames. Thus the watermark can be detected from wrong I-frames and the capacity of the watermark solutions are lowly. We propose an extended approach of an existing I-frame watermark solution. We embed the watermark also into the intercoded blocks of P- and B-frames. First the transferred intracoded watermark will be compensated by the drift compensation signal in the intercoded blocks. After this the same watermark information can be embedded in the P- and B-frames as in the I-frames. The advantages of this solution are a higher capacity and a good visual quality of the watermark solution. We present the drawback points of existing intracoded solutions, our newly developed concept and provide the first test results.
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Enrico Hauer and Martin Steinebach "Robust digital watermark solution for intercoded frames of MPEG video data", Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005);

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