21 March 2005 TCQ-based quantizer design for data hiding in images
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Abstract
Most of quantization based data hiding schemes are based on uniform scalar quantizer, which is optimal only if the host signal is uniformly distributed. In our recent work, we proposed two pdf-matched quantizer based data hiding schemes, both of which have better embedding efficiency than conventional uniform quantizer based schemes. But these schemes require a lot of location information for qualified pixels, which increases the side information needed by the decoder. Moreover, these schemes are inconvenient when high embedding rates are desired. In this paper, we propose a trellis coded quantizer (TCQ) based data hiding scheme, which is proved to be more embedding efficient than traditional quantizer based schemes. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can be up to 1.2 dB closer to the capacity upper bound than the QIM scheme over the whole watermark noise rate (WNR) range. Comparing with our previous work, the proposed TCQ based scheme has less side information and can easily realize a high embedding rate.
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Ning Liu, Ning Liu, Koduvayur P. Subbalakshmi, Koduvayur P. Subbalakshmi, } "TCQ-based quantizer design for data hiding in images", Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.591861; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.591861
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