21 March 2005 Use of inferential statistics to estimate error probability of video watermarks
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Abstract
Video watermarks can be used to embed copyright and copy-control information and will there for be used in DVD players and recorders as well as in digital broadcasting equipment. Errors in video watermark detection can cause serious problems, such as erroneous indication of illegal copying and erroneous copy control. These errors could not, however, be eliminated because watermarked pictures are subjected to wide varieties of image processing such as compression, resizing, filtering, or D/A or A/D conversion. Estimating errors of video watermarks is therefore an essential requirement for electric equipment that is to use copyright and copy-control information properly. This paper proposes a video watermarking method that estimates error probability from each watermarked frame at hand after image processing by using the expectation-maximization algorithm from inferential statistics. The paper also proposes a reliable detection system of video watermarks by using the proposed method. Experimental evaluations have shown that the new method can be used reliably with the margin factor and can be widely used in electric equipment as well as content-distribution systems.
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Isao Echizen, Hiroshi Yoshiura, Yasuhiro Fujii, Takaaki Yamada, Satoru Tezuka, "Use of inferential statistics to estimate error probability of video watermarks", Proc. SPIE 5681, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII, (21 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.586729; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.586729
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